Debra L. Conversely, while adult cats often have different and more chronic causes of diarrhea than kittens, the condition remains a common reason for cats to be presented to veterinarians for care.
This review discusses some of the more common causes as well as the best approaches for diagnosis and treatment of diarrhea in kittens and cats. The role of diet in diagnosis and therapy of giardia histology stain is considered when appropriate.
Diarrhea in kittens may range in severity from mild and self-limiting to a severe, hemorrhagic, life-threatening condition. Knowledge of the most frequently encountered causes of diarrhea in kittens is essential in formulating appropriate diagnostic and treatment plans for these young patients.
Although adult cats can also have infectious, parasitic, mechanical e. In many adult cats, Giardia species infections are subclinical or giardia histology stain, but in kittens, infection is classically associated with an acute onset of malodorous, pale, mucoid diarrhea. The diagnosis is relatively straightforward when the trophozoites or cysts are identified on fresh fecal smears or flotation.
Treatment of giardiasis in cats and kittens has not changed drastically for many years, and includes specific antiprotozoal therapy combined with environmental control. Giardia histology stain note of caution here is advised using metronidazole at this dose for longer than days, as metronidazole toxicity is much more likely to result.
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However, the lack of efficacy may have been due to the combined infection, so, the true effectiveness of fenbendazole against Giardia species is not known. Finally, experimentally infected cats were effectively treated with a combination product containing febantel Drontal Plus, Bayer Animal Health. In that study, the kittens did not have diarrhea from Giardia infection, but Giardia antigen test results became negative after therapy, suggesting complete removal of the organism.
Válogatott, minőségi képek több mint országból Változatosság Több mint 70 millió fénykép, vektorkép, illusztráció és sok más. Érték Egyszerű és átlátható képenkénti vagy havidíjas árazás Megbízhatóság Naponta több, mintletöltött kép. A licencet illető gyakori giardia histology stain Többet kell-e fizetnem, hogy a teljes Shutterstock gyűjteményhez hozzáférjek? Valamennyi regisztrált felhasználó korlátlan hozzáférést kap a teljes könyvtárhoz, különös gonddal őrzött gyűjteményeinket is beleértve. A jobb minőségért nem számítunk fel plusz költséget.
One note of caution is that this drug is not approved for use in cats, primarily because neurologic signs were giardia histology stain during initial testing. Because reinfection is a major cause of persistent or recurrent infection in a household, cattery, or shelter, appropriate environment control measures are essential. Such measures include environmental decontamination cleaning all floors, cages, litter pans, and surfaces that have been in contact with feces with quaternary ammonium or Clorox-containing disinfectantscoat cleaning bathing or shaving of long-haired catsand isolation of affected animals during the diarrheic phase to prevent infection through grooming and other forms of contact.
Vaccination with the commercially available Giardia vaccine GiardiaVax, Fort Dodge Animal Health, Giardia histology stain Park, KS does not prevent infection or shedding of cysts but may reduce the severity and the duration of shedding.
As a result of studiesperformed by Lappin, et al, evaluating the effectiveness of this vaccine, it is not recommended for routine use in household cats.
Because Giardia is zoonotic, appropriate education about handling infected cats and kittens is also important. Trichomoniasis Trichomoniasis, caused by Tritrichomonas foetus, has been recently recognized as a pathogen in kittens and adult cats. This is the same protozoal organism that infects cattle, causing early embryonic death, abortion, and pyometra. However, in cats, the organism infects the large intestinal mucosa giardia histology stain causes chronic large bowel diarrhea characterized by increased mucus, tenesmus, hematochezia, and increased frequency of defecation.
Most affected kittens are healthy, alert, and active. The only outward giardia histology stain of illness are the presence of anal hyperemia or swelling, and painful defecation.
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Most infections are diagnosed in young kittens with chronic diarrhea average age 9 monthsbut infection can occur at any age. Cats that are exposed to the organism will probably become infected, and infection is likely to be persistent.
In a recent study, all eight cats that were exposed to Tritrichomonas trophozoites giardia histology stain infected as evidenced by fecal cultures performed throughout the days of the study. However, infection with T.
Наи кивнула, мальчик подошел к карте. - Моя мама родилась здесь, в Таиланде, в городе Лампанг. Тут родился и ее отец. Моя бабушка со стороны матери тоже родилась в Таиланде, но в другом городе, называющемся Чиангсэн.
Diagnosis of this infection can be made by one of four approaches, listed according to relative ease of use and expense: 1 direct examination of the feces for trophozoites, 2 fecal cultures for the organism using the InpouchTF kit, Biomed Diagnostics, White City, OR3 polymerase chain reaction PCR of feces must be submitted to specific labs, Dr.
However, it is still the easiest and potentially fastest way to make a definitive diagnosis. The InPouchTF kit is giardia histology stain sensitive than the giardia histology stain examination but takes up to 12 days to grow the organism for diagnosis. The samples can be sent to a lab for culture, or the culture kits can be obtained and used in the practice setting.
Because other trichomonad species can grow in the pouch, PCR testing of the cultured organisms may be needed.
PCR testing is the most sensitive and specific method of diagnosis, but is also more expensive and results take longer to obtain because only a few labs can do this test. Therapy of cats trichomoniasis is difficult because there is no readily available, approved drug.
Metronidazole and other antibiotics have been used in both experimentally and naturally infected cats but are completely ineffective in clearing the infection. Because members of the nitroimidazole family of antimicrobials would be expected to be effective against trichomonads, other drugs from the family have been tested.
However, this drug is not approved giardia histology stain use in cats and is potentially hepatotoxic and neurotoxic. Thus, it should only be used when a definitive diagnosis has been paraziták etelei and the owners understand the risks associated with therapy.
It should not be used empirically to treat cats with undiagnosed diarrhea because of numerous anecdotal reports of neurotoxicity, especially at higher-than-recommended doses and for longer than 14 days.
All other antibiotics and parasiticidals, including tylosin, enrofloxacin, azithromycin, and fenbendazole, have not been shown to be effective against T.
Clinical remission has been shown to giardia histology stain in many infected cats, usually by 2 years of age, even without treatment. However, the malodorous feces associated with trichomoniasis reduces the likelihood that infected cats will be acceptable indoor pets.
At this time there is no evidence that this organism is zoonotic, but it is certainly infectious to other cats, and appropriate infection prevention measures should be instituted. Cryptosporidiosis Cryptosporidium parvum is a coccidian parasite that infects the microvilli of the intestinal epithelium of kittens and immunosuppressed cats.
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The disease caused by this infection can range from an asymptomatic carrier state; to mild, transient illness; to prolonged, life-threatening malabsorption syndromes. In some adult cats, the organism can cause intestinal infiltrates similar to those observed with classic IBD, and because the organisms are very small, unless special stains are used, giardia histology stain be not diagnosed.
Because, like many coccidians, the organisms are shed intermittently further complicates the diagnosis because infected cats may have a negative Helminths usmle. Because cryptosporidiosis is zoonotic, appropriate precautions, such as wearing gloves and cleaning any utensils with disinfectants bleachmust be used when infected feces are giardia histology stain.
Treatment of kittens and catsinfected with cryptosporidiosis is very difficult, as the drugs helminták parazita to be effective against giardia histology stain organism are either toxic or ineffective in cats e.
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Tylosin, metronidazole, and other commonly giardia histology stain antimicrobials are ineffective in eradicating the organism. They may improve diarrhea if a bacterial component is active, but are unhelpful in most cases.
Other Infectious Causes of Diarrhea in Kittens Viral causes Other causes of diarrhea that should be considered in kittens include several viral diseases: feline panleukopenia virus, hemorrhagic calicivirus, rotavirus, astrovirus, enteric coronaviruses, and feline infectious giardia histology stain. Feline panleukopenia is the most clinically important intestinal virus of this group and affects primarily unvaccinated kittens, causing fever, depression, anorexia, vomiting, and diarrhea.
Diagnosis is usually based on the clinical signs and history, but the canine parvovirus antigen test cross-reacts with the feline virus and thus can be used for confirmation. In adult cats, hemorrhagic calicivirus, FeLV, FIV and feline infectious peritonitis virus are the most important viral causes of enteritis and diarrhea.
Treatment of this and any viral enteritis in kittens is symptomatic and supportive.
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Because young kittens are prone to dehydration and hypoglycemia, fluid therapy and nutritional support are key aspects. The definitive diagnosis of bacterial infections as the cause of diarrhea in kittens or cats is very difficult, primarily because pathogens can be isolated in similar rates from both diarrhea and nondiarrheic feces. Furthermore, many anaerobic bacteria cannot be easily cultured from feces or intraluminal ingesta due to their lability in air, thus, accurate identification of many of these species will likely require very advanced techniques or molecular identification methods.
Fungal causes Other infectious causes of diarrhea include fungal diseases, such as Histoplasma; however, these infections are more likely to occur in adult cats. Parasitic causes Most of the parasitic causes of diarrhea in kittens are typical e.
However, therapeutic deworming should still be done in kittens that have diarrhea, even if the results of fecal testing is negative. Anatomical and Mechanical Causes The curious, investigative nature of kittens makes them prone to ingesting foreign substances that may cause diarrhea or vomiting.
In most cases, obstructions or intussusception cause vomiting, but the more distal the problem in the gastrointestinal tract, the more likely diarrhea may be the primary clinical sign. Mechanical or anatomic causes of diarrhea to be considered in kittens include developmental abnormalities e.